In accordance with the diantimony trioxide CSR, the NOAEL of 1686 mg/kg bw/d from a subchronic oral toxicity study in rats is selected as being the most relevant for estimating systemic effects that might be associated with dermal uptake of antimony metal or antimony (III) compounds. The tri- and pentavalent forms are the most stable forms of antimony (U.S. EPA, 1992) and are of the most interest in biological systems. Chelation Therapy; Chelation therapy with BAL, DMSA, or DMPS has been shown to improve the course of antimony toxicity. Elemental antimony metal does not affect human and environmental health. In certain cases when the Antimony levels are higher than expected, the associated … Profile for antimony, Toxicological According to an article done by De Wolffe, a professor of toxicology at thew University of Amsterdam, antimony toxicity does not exist; and every compound of the metal must be considered to be a separate toxicological entity. Symptomatic and supportive treatment is most commonly used in antimony toxicity. Common symptoms of poisoning from these metals may include gastrointestinal, renal, and neurological symptoms, such as headaches, irritability, psychosis, stupor, coma, and convulsions. Blood levels of antimony can be measured to confirm diagnosis of antimony toxicity. Provisional Peer Reviewed Toxicity Values for . Little antimony is currently mined in the United States. Summary: Antimony is a silvery-white metal that is found in the earth's crust. Please contact NTP, IARC, or EPA’s IRIS Hotline with questions on cancer and cancer classification. Long-term occupational exposure of humans has resulted in electrocardiac disorders, respiratory disorders, and possibly increased mortality (Renes, 1953; Breiger et al., 1954). ANTIMONY TETROXIDE. Heavy metals are deadly hidden toxins in our food and environment. Usually, the toxic effects of metals are related to the chemical form to which peoples are exposed. EINECS 215-576-0. Provides an ongoing assessment of the exposure of the U.S. population to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. This guide will inform you of sources of toxic heavy metals, symptoms of toxicity and how to remove them from your body. The level in urine is normally around 250 ppt (which is equivalent to a mere 0.000000025%). recognizing, evaluating, and treating illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances. Chronic Toxic Effects: This product ha s not been fully tested. TESTING: If you suspect that you have an elevated Lead level, it is important for you to know that whole blood analysis can reflect only recent exposures and does not correlate well with total body burden of lead. Methods: We included observational studies that measured levels of toxic metals (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, and thallium) in different specimens (whole blood, plasma, serum, red cells, hair and urine) for patients with ASD and for controls. It roughly makes up about 0.00002 percent of the Earth’s crust. Inhalation. Urine testing is the most accurate, reliable, and valid test method for measuring antimony levels in the body. Antimony pentasulphide (Sb 2 S 5) has much the same uses as the trisulphide and has a low level of toxicity. Prioritization of substances based on a combination of their frequency, toxicity, and potential for human exposure at National Priorities List (NPL) sites. Antimony is used as a part of the therapy for these conditions and can sometimes have toxic side effects that lead to pancreatitis and cardio toxicity. Antimony can exist in one of four valences in its various chemical and physical forms: -3, 0, +3, and +5. 11. Toxicological Information . Those who breathed in the compound, like the port workers mentioned above, may suffer from symptoms like pneumoconiosis, gastrointestinal concerns, antimony spots appearing on their skin, and respiratory irritation. Little antimony is currently mined in the United States. RTECS Number: CC9450000 . The CDC stated in their report that only validated methods should be used for the determination of antimony toxicity. In general, how your body reacts to a toxic level of antimony will depend on how you were exposed. Everyone is exposed to low levels of antimony in the environment. of antimony toxicity wherein 30 firefighters reported elevated antimony levels on hair analyses as some fire fighter station uniforms contain the flame-retardant antimony trioxide. Antimony levels for these occupational exposure evaluations ranged from 2.2 to 11.98 mg Sb/m 3. Antimony is a naturally occurring metal often used in combination with lead and zinc, found in metal alloys, paints, ceramics, and fireworks. It is brought into this country from other countries for processing. The most widely used antimony compound is antimony trioxide, used as a component in flame retardant applications. Treatment. ANTIMONY. cadmium, mercury). However, even these doses can be fatal when chronically exposed. Antimony levels as high as 9.7 µg/L have been reported in drinking water. [] conducted several laboratory experiments to investigate whether elevated antimony concentrations previously found in the organs of wild, short-tailed field voles (Microtus agrestis) at a contaminated grassland site near an antimony smelter were sufficient to cause harmful … Ainsworth et al. Gross exposure to antimony compounds o … The information in this MRL serves as a screening tool to help public health professionals decide where to look more closely to evaluate possible risk of adverse health effects from human exposure. These clinics specialize in (1999) evaluated serum cytokine and immunoglobulin levels in antimony workers at a factory in Korea that produced antimony trioxide as a major product. The form of antimony greatly influences distribution and elimination. 1.8 Is there a medical test to determine whether I have been exposed to Antimony? Email: Contact CDC-INFO. Acute (short-term) exposure to antimony by inhalation in humans results in effects on the skin and eyes. Antimony is a silvery-white metal that is found in the earth's crust. It is also used in paints, ceramics, fireworks, enamels, and glass, and as a fire-retardant in textiles and plastics. Blood concentrations in unexposed individuals rarely exceed 3 µg/L. Inhalation of antimony trioxide (and similar poorly soluble Sb(III) dust particles such as antimony dust) is considered harmful and suspected of causing cancer. profile for antimony, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The toxicology of antimony and its compounds is known from three sources: its medicinal use over centuries, studies of process workers in more recent times, and more recent still, studies of its presence in modern city environments and in domestic environments. 7440-36-0. Summary of mammalian toxicity Mammalian Oral Toxicity Mammalian Oral Toxicity—Acute. 1982] and an analogy to hydrogen chloride [ACGIH 1991] which has a revised IDLH of 50 ppm (75 mg/m3). ... Kim et al. Antimony ores are mined and then mixed with other metals to form antimony alloys or combined with oxygen to form antimony oxide. Antimony oxide (Sb2O4) Diantimony tetraoxide. 888-232-6348 (TTY) ATSDR can also tell you the location of occupational and environmental health clinics. Toxicity Data: LD50 Oral – Rat >2,000 mg/kg . Antimony isn't used alone because it breaks easily, but when mixed into alloys, it is used in lead storage batteries, solder, sheet and pipe metal, bearings, castings, and pewter. Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. Antimony ores are mined and then mixed with other metals to form antimony alloys or combined with oxygen to form antimony oxide. The toxicokinetics and toxicity of the tri- and pentavalent forms vary, with the trivalent form considered to be more toxic. The background level of antimony in bodily fluids used to be almost undetectable but techniques have improved in recent years so that it is now measurable at parts per trillion. Antimony trichloride (SbCl 3 ), or antimonous chloride (butter of antimony) , is produced by the interaction of chlorine and antimony or by dissolving antimony trisulphide in hydrochloric acid. 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